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The types of malignant tumors

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Skin сancer

I. Epidemiology and prevalence. Morbidity These tumors - the most frequent malignant neoplasms, but their share in the structure of mortality does not exceed 0.1%.   Risk Factors   Insolation. Sunlight - the main carcinogen, in 90% of cancer occurs in open areas of the body. The incidence among whites increases dramatically near the equator, in the mountains is higher than at sea level. The risk is elevated in people with blue eyes, pale skin, blond or red hair, as well as in susceptible to sunburn. Blacks have much lower incidence than...

Prostate cancer

I. The etiology and prevalence Morbidity. The increase in morbidity due mainly to improved diagnosis, primarily due to the definition of PSA and transrectal ultrasound use. With age, the incidence rises sharply   Etiology. The reason prostate cancer is unknown, a number of established risk factors. Demographic factors. The incidence is maximal in Sweden, an intermediate in the rest of Europe, the U.S. and the Japanese who emigrated to the United States, and minimal in Japan and Taiwan. In blacks it is 30% higher than that of whites. In addition,...

Thyroid cancer

The etiology and prevalence of Incidence. This tumor is less than 1% of malignant neoplasms. The risk increases with age, women suffer 1.5 times more often. Ethnology   Ionizing radiation.   Hereditary factors.   TSH. Risk factor may be persistent increase in serum TSH. Pathologic anatomy and flow. Papillary carcinoma (70%) more often seen in young people. Follicular carcinoma (20%). The peak incidence occurs at age 40. Undifferentiated carcinoma (2%) usually occurs after the 60 years of age. Medullary carcinoma...

Breast Cancer

I. The etiology and prevalence of Morbidity Among the malignant tumors in women with breast cancer ranks first in incidence (29% of all cases) and the second death (the first - before the age of 55 years). Risk Factors   Age. Risk increases with age, especially after - 50 years.   Breast.   Pregnancy and lactation. At the first birth after age 30 the risk of breast cancer is 2-5 times higher than in the first genus to 18. Exercise, according to the majority of cohort studies, may reduce the risk of breast cancer regardless of age. Ionizing...

Kidney cancer

I. Etiologiyai prevalence Morbidity Kidney cancer is 3% of malignant tumors in adults. Men get sick twice as often as women. Most cases occur in age from 30 to 70 years Etiology. The cause of kidney cancer risk neizvestna.Faktory Smoking (heavy smokers the risk increased 2.3-fold). Urban lifestyle. Kidney cancer in relatives. The introduction of Thorotrast. Hereditary syndromes. Possible risk factors include polycystic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus and chronic hemodialysis. I I. Pathological anatomy and flow Renal cell carcinoma. Kidney...

Liver cancer

I. The etiology and prevalence Morbidity. In many countries, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the first places on the morbidity and mortality. Annually in the world up to 1 million people die from hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatitis B. Cirrhosis of the liver. Hepatitis C. Aflatoxins are distinguished by fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergil lus parasiticus, which are prevalent in any climate (except the far north), and often parasitic on nuts, grains, cassava. Mutations in TP53. Steroid hormones. The...

Pancreatic cancer

I. The etiology and prevalence Morbidity. Fifth place in mortality. Value for sick men and women of 1:1. The tumor rarely occurs in people under 45 years, the incidence is maximal in the age 65 79 years. Etiology. The cause of pancreatic cancer is still not known, but several factors to some extent, affect the incidence. Smoking, according to some studies, increases the risk of pancreatic cancer at least 1.5 times. The risk increases with the number Patchko-years. 10-15 years after quitting the excess risk disappears. Carcinogenic effect of tobacco...

Lung cancer

Morbidity.   Lung cancer - the most common cancer (excluding skin cancer), he makes about a third of all deaths from cancer (first place in both men and women).   Etiology   Cigarette smoking is the cause of 85-90% of cases of lung cancer, smokers fall ill is 30 times more non-smokers. Smoking cigars and pipes doubles the risk of lung cancer. Asbestos - a risk factor for mesothelioma, but it increases the risk of lung cancer and, especially in smokers - in addition to 3 times (thus, smokers, asbestos workers, the risk increases 90 times.) ...

Сancer of the eye

Tumors (cancer) of the eye may be primary (formed from the tissues of the eye) and secondary (metastatic cancer of other organs).Among the tumors of the eye occur as benign (choroidal hemangioma, choroidal nevus, tumor age, benign tumors of the orbit) and malignant (intraocular melanoma, intraocular lymphoma, retinoblastoma). Choroidal hemangioma - a benign tumor of blood vessels germinating eyes. Choroidal nevus - like cutaneous nevi, has a tendency to malignancy, and pererostaniyu in melanoma. Tumors of the century - the most common disorders are dermoid...

Brain tumors

I. The etiology and prevalence Morbidity. Primary brain tumors account for 2% of all malignant neoplasms (17 OOO cases per year) and cause 2.5% of deaths from them (10 OOO per year, Table. 14.1). Men suffer 1.5 times more often. The peak incidence occurs at ages 5-10 and 50-55 years. Brain tumor - the most common solid tumors in children (Ch. 18). Etiology Environmental factors (smoking, alcohol, food) does not affect the risk of CNS tumors. Ionizing radiation can induce the formation of meningiomas, schwannomas, sarcomas and astrocytomas. ...

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