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Symptoms, signs, diagnosis of breast cancer

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Breast cancer (breast) - a cancer in which form and develop in the tissues of the breast cancer (malignant) cells. Most encounters a type of breast cancer (breast) is ductal carcinoma, which begins to develop in the cells of the ducts. Cancer that begins to develop in the lobules is called lobular carcinoma, the most common in both breasts, as opposed to other types of breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer (breast) - a rare type of breast cancer in which the breast red, warm and swollen.

Health history can affect the risk of onset of breast cancer.

Anything that increases your chances of developing the disease - a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors does not mean that you will never get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be in danger.

Breast cancer risk factors include the following:

  • Menstruation at a very early age;
  • Older age at first birth or not giving birth at all;
  • Personal history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, or benign breast disease;
  • Family history (first-degree relatives, such as mother, daughter, or sister) of breast cancer;
  • Getting to change inherited in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2;
  • Treatment of breast radiation therapy;
  • The presence of dense tissue in a mammary gland;
  • The administration of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone;
  • Receiving hormone diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy or being the daughter of a woman who took DES during pregnancy;
  • Obesity;
  • Not enough physical activity;
  • Use of alcoholic beverages;
  • Breast cancer is sometimes a cause of inherited gene mutations (changes).

The genes in cells carry the hereditary information from parents. Hereditary breast cancer accounts for approximately 5% to 10% of all breast oncological diseases. Some mutated genes associated with breast cancer is more common in certain ethnic groups.

Women who have certain mutations, such as mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 have an increased risk of developing breast cancer disease. In addition, women who have had breast tumor in a breast, are at increased risk of tumor development in the other breast. These women are also at increased risk for the development of ovarian cancer, and may have an increased risk of developing other cancers. Men who have mutated genes that are associated with breast cancer, also have an increased risk of developing the disease.

Initial signs of breast cancer

Primary signs of breast cancer (breast) sealing or change in the mammary gland.

Breast tumor can cause its own any of the following signs and symptoms.

Consult a doctor if you find yourself in one of the following problems:

  • Swelling or thickening "in" or "near" the breast; in the armpit;
  • Change the size or shape of the breast;
  • Deepening or wrinkling of skin of the breast;
  • Nipples kept to himself in the chest;
  • The liquid other than breast milk from the nipple, especially if it is bloody;
  • Flaking, redness, or swelling of the skin on the breast, nipple or areola (the dark skin around the nipple);
  • Dimples on the chest, like the skin of an orange;
  • Should see a doctor if you notice changes in the breast.

These tests and procedures may be used for the diagnosis of tumors in the breast:

  • Physical examination and history;
  • Clinical breast examination (CBE);
  • Mammography: X-ray of the breast;
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);
  • Blood chemistry;
  • Biopsy (excisional biopsy, needle biopsy, fine-needle aspiration);
  • If the cancer has already been found, the tests are carried out to study cancer cells.

Deciding on the most effective methods of treatment based on the results of these tests. The tests provide information on how quickly the tumor may grow; how likely the cancer will spread throughout the body; how well certain treatments may work; how likely it is that cancer is repeated (returns).

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