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Skin сancer

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I. Epidemiology and prevalence.

  • Morbidity

These tumors - the most frequent malignant neoplasms, but their share in the structure of mortality does not exceed 0.1%.
 

  • Risk Factors  
    • Insolation. Sunlight - the main carcinogen, in 90% of cancer occurs in open areas of the body. The incidence among whites increases dramatically near the equator, in the mountains is higher than at sea level. The risk is elevated in people with blue eyes, pale skin, blond or red hair, as well as in susceptible to sunburn. Blacks have much lower incidence than whites.
  • Other carcinogens
    • Arsenic increases the risk of disease Bowen, multiple basal cell carcinoma.
    • Ionizing radiation - radiation therapy for some diseases (acne vulgaris, hirsutism), occupational hazard - increasing the risk of skin cancer by 20%. The tumor arises in many years (up to 50 years) after irradiation. Basal cell carcinoma developed in 2 times more likely than squamous. The latter occurs more aggressively, mortality reaches 10%.
    • Tar and increase the risk of squamous quinacrine skin cancer.
  • Chronic inflammation and injury
    • Fistulae in chronic osteomyelitis.
    • Fistulas, varicose eczema, leukoplakia.
    • Thermal and electrical burns.
    • Atrophy of the skin.
    • Scars after vaccination.
  • Hereditary diseases.
    • Kaposis disease
    • Gorlin syndrome, Goltz
  • Viruses
    • Verruniformnaya epidermodysplasia
    • Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin genital and perianal area
    • Squamous cell carcinoma of the nail shaft


I I. Pathological anatomy and flow

  • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Aggressive squamous cell carcinoma
    • Bowens disease
    • Bovenoidny papulosis
  • Basal cell carcinoma
    • Nodular-ulcerative form
    • The surface shape
    • Sklerodermopodobnaya form
    • Cystic
    • Sleek
    • Melkouzelkovaya form

 MELANOMA

I. Etiology and prevalence

  • Morbidity
    • Geographical latitude. The incidence increases as pri6lizheniya to the equator.
    • The floor. Men and women suffer equally often. In men, melanoma most often appears on the back, for women - on their feet.
    • Age. Young children get sick often. With puberty the incidence begins to increase, reaching a peak at 65-70 years.
    • Race. For White incidence is higher than that of the colored races.
    • Multiple melanoma (synchronous or metachronous) is 5% of patients.
  • Risk Factors
    • Insolation
    • Heredity
    • Nevus
      1. Approximately 70% of patients develop melanoma on the site of nevus. Congenital nevi, especially the gigantic increase the risk of melanoma. If possible, they should be removed.
    • Other risk factors include the chemical and physical carcinogens (ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, trauma, burns), immunodeficiency, professionalynye hazard.
  • Forms of melanoma
    • Superficially spreading melanoma (70%)
    • Nodular melanoma (15%), the bowl is in men.
    • Lentigo-melanoma (10-15%) are equally common in men and women.
    • Akralnaya lengshinoznaya melanoma affects the palms, soles and toes.
  • Signs of melanoma. The growth of hair is not a yardstick of good quality education. We emphasize once again the possible symptoms of melanoma.
    • Changing the size, color or surface of the nevus. itching.
    • Uneven color (shades of brown, black, red, white and blue).
    • Bluish tinge, even when a uniform color.
    • Jagged edges with grooves.
    • Other signs of malignancy:

1) The disappearance of skin folds;
2) ulceration and bleeding.

  • Prophylaxis. Primary prevention is to limit insolation and eliminate other risk factors. Secondary prevention is based on a thorough investigation and biopsy of all suspicious spots on the skin.
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