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Thyroid cancer

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  • The etiology and prevalence of
    • Incidence. This tumor is less than 1% of malignant neoplasms.

The risk increases with age, women suffer 1.5 times more often.

  • Ethnology  
    • Ionizing radiation.  
    • Hereditary factors.  
    • TSH. Risk factor may be persistent increase in serum TSH.
  • Pathologic anatomy and flow.
    • Papillary carcinoma (70%) more often seen in young people.
    • Follicular carcinoma (20%). The peak incidence occurs at age 40.
    • Undifferentiated carcinoma (2%) usually occurs after the 60 years of age.
    • Medullary carcinoma (5-10%).
    • Other tumors include lymphoma and various sarcomas, and metastatic lung cancer, colon cancer and other tumors.
  • The clinical picture
    • Complaints. Some patients notice Shade swelling in the neck, hoarseness is due to compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Occasionally neck pain and dysphagia. Often there are no complaints, and the tumor accidentally found during inspection of the neck or strumectomy on another occasion.
    • Treatment. Optimal tactics in patients with favorable prognosis remains controversial.
      • Operation. Regardless of the structure of the tumor shows a thyroidectomy or subtotal resection of the thyroid gland

        a. Cervical lymphadenectomy is carried out with an increase in lymph node

        b. Complications occur in 5-10% of patients who underwent thyroidectomy (at the risk of cervical lymphadenectomy increases by 2-3 times), the mortality rate is very low. Major complications - hypoparathyroidism and paralysis of the vocal folds.

      • Relapse occurs in 12% of patients after radical initial treatment. If the combination of surgery, radioactive iodine and levothyroxine does not help, the chances of success of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are small.
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